Gedichte zur Gottesnähe (German Edition)

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Das auf S. Gedichte, Suhrkamp Verlag , S. Eine Ausnahme von dieser Regelung wurde bei den Briefen und den Widmungen gemacht, die - um den privaten und unmittelbaren Charakter zu bewahren - diplomatisch wiedergegeben wurden. Franz Pfeiffer. Iterum Edidit Otto Schroeder. Teubner Leipzig ; Goethe 's Werke. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung. Band , Band ; Sophoclis Fabulae. Erster Band. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung Berlin, 5. Aufjage Mein besonderer Dank gilt Herrn Prof.

Friedrich- Wilhelm v. Hermann Heidegger und H errn Dr. Freiburg i. Martin Heidegger - Gesamtausgabe, Bd Read more. Recommend Documents. Artworks, Heidegger contends, are things, a definition that raises the question of the meaning of a "thing," such that works have a thingly character. This is a broad concept, so Heidegger chooses to focus on three dominant interpretations of things: Things as substances with properties, or as bearers of traits. Things as the manifold of sense perceptions.

Things as formed matter; the third interpretation is the most dominant, but is derived from equipment: "This long familiar mode of thought preconceives all immediate experience of beings. The preconception shackles reflection on the Being of any given being. This was typical of Heidegger as he chose to study shoes and shoe maker shops as an example for the analysis of a culture. Heidegger explains the viewer's responsibility to consider the variety of questions about the shoes, asking not only about form and matter—what are the shoes made of?

What world do they open up and belong to? In this way we can get beyond correspondence theories of truth which posit truth as the correspondence of representations to reality. Next, Heidegger writes of art's ability to set up an active struggle between "Earth" and "World.

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So a family unit could be a world, or a career path could be a world, or a large community or nation. It is outside the ready-to-hand. Both are necessary components for an artwork to function; the artwork is inherently an object of "world". However, the nature of art itself appeals to "Earth", as a function of art is to highlight the natural materials used to create it, such as the colors of the paint, the density of the language, or the texture of the stone, as well as the fact that everywhere an implicit background is necessary for every significant explicit representation.

In this way, "World" is revealing the unintelligibility of "Earth", so admits its dependence on the natural "Earth". This reminds us that concealment is the necessary precondition for i. The existence of truth is a product of this struggle—the process of art—taking place within the artwork. Heidegger uses the example of a Greek temple to illustrate his conception of earth; such works as the temple help in capturing this essence of art as they go through a transition from artworks to art objects depending on the status of their world.

Once the culture has changed, the temple no longer is able to engage with its surroundings and beco. Aristotle Aristotle was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece , the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato , he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy ", his writings cover many subjects — including physics , zoology , logic, aesthetics , theatre, rhetoric , linguistics , economics and government.

Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry; as a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion. Little is known about his life. Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece , his father, died when Aristotle was a child, he was brought up by a guardian.

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At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven. He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication; the fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism , following Plato's death, Aristotle developed an increased interest in natural sciences and adopted the position of immanent realism.

Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance , were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus , were disbelieved until the 19th century.


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His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and John Buridan. Aristotle's influence on logic continued well into the 19th century He influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages , as well as Christian theology the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as "The First Teacher" and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as "The Philosopher", his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics, such as in the thinking of Alasdair MacIntyre and Philippa Foot.

In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established; the biographies written in ancient times are speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points.

Aristotle, whose name means "the best purpose" in Ancient Greek , was born in BC in Stagira, about 55 km east of modern-day Thessaloniki. His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Both of Aristotle's parents died when he was about thirteen, Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy.


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The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus , although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died. After the death of Hermias , Aristotle travelled with his pupil Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos , where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon.

While in Lesbos, Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be "a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants".

By BC, Aristotle had returned to Athens. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years.

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While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira , who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus. This period in Athens, between and BC, is when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works, he wrote many dialogues. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not. He is an immensely influential philosopher and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism , within which he is known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis; the name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio , Italy.

He was the father of Thomism , his influence on Western thought is considerable, much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas in the areas of ethics, natural law and political theory. Unlike many currents in the Church of the time, Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle—whom he called "the Philosopher"—and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity , his best-known works are the Disputed Questions on Truth, the Summa contra Gentiles , the Summa Theologiae.

His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle form an important part of his body of work. Furthermore, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Church's liturgy. The Catholic Church honors Thomas Aquinas as a saint and regards him as the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood , indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology. In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines.

Thomas Aquinas is considered philosophers. Thomas was most born in the castle of Roccasecca , Aquino, in the Kingdom of Sicily , c. Though he did not belong to the most powerful branch of the family, Landulf of Aquino was a man of means.

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As a knight in the service of King Roger II , he held the title miles. Thomas's mother, belonged to the Rossi branch of the Neapolitan Caracciolo family. Landulf's brother Sinibald was abbot of the first Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino. While the rest of the family's sons pursued military careers, the family intended for Thomas to follow his uncle into the abbacy. At the age of five Thomas began his early education at Monte Cassino but after the military conflict between the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX spilled into the abbey in early , Landulf and Theodora had Thomas enrolled at the studium generale established by Frederick in Naples, it was here that Thomas was introduced to Aristotle and Maimonides , all of whom would influence his theological philosophy.

It was during his study at Naples that Thomas came under the influence of John of St. Julian , a Dominican preacher in Naples, part of the active effort by the Dominican order to recruit devout followers. There his teacher in arithmetic, geometry and music was Petrus de Ibernia. At the age of nineteen Thomas resolved to join the founded Dominican Order. Thomas's change of heart did not please his family. In an attempt to prevent Theodora's interference in Thomas's choice, the Dominicans arranged to move Thomas to Rome , from Rome, to Paris.

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However, while on his journey to Rome, per Theodora's instructions, his brothers seized him as he was drinking from a spring and took him back to his parents at the castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano. Thomas was held prisoner for one year in the family castles at Monte San Giovanni and Roccasecca in an attempt to prevent him from assuming the Dominican habit and to push him into renouncing his new aspiration. Political concerns prevented the Pope from ordering Thomas's release, which had the effect of extending Thomas's detention.

Thomas passed this time of trial tutoring his sisters and communicating with members of the Dominican Order. Family members became desperate to dissuade Thomas. At one point, two of his brothers resorted to the measure of hiring a prostitute to seduce him. According to legend, Thomas drove her away wielding a fire iron and two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate.